Oleg Fomenko, 31, smashed the monk's image and damaged the side of a parked truck with a crowbar as he walked back to his hotel after a night out.
Police were called to the Karon temple and reviewed security camera footage that showed what happened.
The following night, officers from Karon Police Station staked out the temple and caught Mr Fomenko as he walked through, wearing the same shirt.
Mr Fomenko, staying in a hotel in Patak Road, could only explain his actions by saying that he had been drunk.
He had been angry because of a small cut on his hand, he said.