The officials oversaw policies covering education from universities to kindergartens.
The prime minister has made his contempt for education standards in Thailand plain. It's generally acknowledged that Thailand's standards are among the lowest in South East Asia.
Social media was filled with people congratulating PM Prayuth on the move this afternoon.
The prime minister has spoken about the lack of research and development in Thailand.
His precedent-setting use of Article 44, which gives him exceptional powers, followed a nationally telecast speech earlier today assessing his six months in government.
While a few universities in Thailand are highly regarded, some universities are allegedly hotbeds of corruption where degrees and PhDs can be bought.
Parents are also often asked to pay extra for their children to be placed in public schools.