Andrey Belov, 31, and Ekaerina Denisovich, 22, have been charged with several offences relating to possession of the macaques and were taken to Phang Nga on Friday.
Officers from the Natural Resources and Environment Crime Suppression Unit nabbed the couple on Kai Island, an atoll especially popular with tourists from Japan, China and Korea.
With them were three macaque monkeys, taken into custody last night at Phuket City Police Station.
The plain clothes officers, investigating the alleged ''ownership'' of the popular island, discovered the couple and the monkeys today.
''The Russians were taking money from the tourists to have their photo taken with the monkeys,'' the officer said.
''We understand this has been going on for about a year.''
Names of the couple had not been revealed this evening as the man returned to their home in the Phuket west coast destination of Karon, south of Patong, to collect passports and documents they claim prove their ownership.
The investigation will move off Phuket to Ko Yao island tomorrow because Kai Island, a popular calling spot for Phuket tourists, is actually in the neighboring province of Phang Nga.
Ownership cards produced for the three macaques listed the name Alexander Gabets.
The arrests come with the CITES international gathering in Bangkok looking at wildlife issues in Thailand.
A crackdown is also currently taking place to drive photo touts abusing slow lorises and other protected creatures off Phuket's streets.
Monkeys Sonya (eight months, female) Sam (one year, male) and Antony (one year, male) were stuck in a carry cage that did not allow them much room. No details have been revealed about how they were cared for or conditions in captivity.
The macaques - not natives to Phuket - will be taken to Phuket's Gibbon Refuge Centre in Kathu for future care.